Food Culture Anecdotes Part2－5 (3) - (1)2020/09/06（Sun）
Food Culture Anecdotes Part2－5 (3) Anecdotes on “Coffee (“Kohii” in Japanese)”
Food Culture Anecdotes Part2－5 (3) - (1) Anecdotes on History of “Coffee” (History in World and Japan, History of Medical action of “Coffee”) and Relationship between “Coffee” and religion, etc.
Please refer the previous Food Culture Anecdotes Part 2 - 5 (2) Anecdotes on “Black Tea (“Kocha”)”
§ History of "Coffee” in the world
♪ In the history of coffee, first it will be described regarding “regional transmission”.
☆ It may be established theory that the origin of "coffee tree" (Arabica species) is in Ethiopia. Then, in 525, when Ethiopia invaded Yemen, coffee trees were brought into Yemen. It is said that Saint Gemandin traveled to Ethiopia, learned about actions of coffee , and introduced it to the Islamic region.
☆ It seems that coffee trees were cultivated in Yemen around the 15th century. In 1510, coffee for drinking behavior was introduced to Cairo, Egypt. In 1517, Ottoman Turkish Selim I in Ottoman Turkish Empire conquered Egypt and then he handed coffee down to Turkey.
☆ In 1615, coffee was introduced to Venice, Italy, and it is said that this was the first time that the habit of drinking coffee was introduced to Europe. In 1640, a Dutch merchant carried coffee beans from Mocha, Yemen, to Amsterdam and sold them.
☆ In 1641, drinking habit of coffee was introduced to England. This year, the Dutch trading house moved to Dejima from Hirado in Nagasaki prefecture, Japan, and at the same time coffee was brought in. Coffee was subsequently introduced to Marseille (1644) and to Paris (1657) in France.
☆ In 1668, immigrants from Europe brought coffee to the continent of North America.
In 1670 it was introduced to Germany.
☆ In the 1680s, Turkey introduced coffee to Austria. In fact, the Ottoman Turkish army, which failed to occupy Austria, left coffee when retreated from Austria. This is the beginning of the history of Austrian coffee which derived “Wiener Coffee”.
☆ In 1695, Islamic pilgrims introduced coffee beans from Yemen to Mysore of India where the cultivation of coffee was started.In 1699, saplings of coffee tree were brought from Netherlands to Java, Indonesia.
☆ In 1727, coffee tree saplings were transferred to Belem, Brazil, by a French, Francisco de Melo Palheta who started coffee cultivation there for home use.
☆ In Vietnam, the cultivation of coffee started in 1980. Since Vietnam was a French colony, it is believed that coffee was introduced from France in the 19th century.
♪ The transmission rout of coffee may be roughly shown in the order of Ethiopia, Yemen, Egypt, Turkey, Italy, Netherlands, Japan, United Kingdom, France, North America, Germany, Austria, India, Indonesia, Brazil and Vietnam.
♪ Regarding medicinal actions of coffee, from ancient time when eat coffee fruits, such people energize their minds and bodies.
§ Medicinal actions of “Coffee”
♪ Two examples that coffee was introduced as medicine by doctors will be described here.
☆ Islamic philosopher and doctor Rathus wrote in his book published early 10th century that the boiled water extract of beans of a plant showed beneficial action to humans. Hundred years later, Avicena, who was also a philosopher and a doctor, wrote the medicinal action of coffee broth and he also wrote how to drink it.
☆ In the 16th century, Albini, a herbologist at an Italian university, knew a bean in the yard of a Turkish house was called “Bun” . Later the beans were understood to be coffee beans.
☆ The juice from coffee leaves and raw beans was a "secret medicine" that only Islamic monks could use.
☆ Siebold, a well-known medical doctor in Japan, wrote that coffee is a drug to play role for longevity. So, he recommends it to be taken (1828).
♪ Thus, since long ago, it has been mainly referred to by medical doctors about the actions of coffee. The main cause of this action is probably the "mindful medicine" that excites also the body. It is thought that this may be due to caffeine.
♪ The origin of coffee is Ethiopia, and it seems that it was introduced to Yemen on the Arabian Peninsula around the 6th century. In other words, coffee was involved in Islam because it was introduced to Islamic culture area including Yemen. It will also affect Christian culture later.
♪ So, next will be described about “Coffee and Religion”.
§ Coffee and Religion
♪ It seems that Islamic monks drank the boiled soup of raw beans of coffee to avoid from their sleepiness while meditating and praying all night. However, this broth is a "secret medicine" only inside the monastery.
☆ Drinking coffee was banned during the 7th century Quran era, because coffee acts like alcohol (probably agitating action), that is contrary to the teachings of the Quran. This ban seems to have been aimed to avoid the common people from coffee. However, coffee penetrated gradually into the common people.
☆ In 1454, Islamic law scholars decided to allow people to drink coffee. However, in 1511, the so-called "Mecca Incident" occurs in which the Islamic preacher Governor Mecca burns out coffee as "the poison that corrupts the general class of people." This was to prevent secretly taking coffee out from temple by the people who came to the Mecca pilgrimage. Nevertheless, coffee was spreading to Islamic countries. In the beginning of the 16th century, coffee was consumed in Egypt.
☆ Ottoman Turkey's Selim I annexed Egypt This caused the transmission of coffee from Egypt to Turkey. Thus,Turkey played a part of role to grow the coffee culture.
☆ Around 1600, the Christian Pope, Clemens VIII, responded to the religious resistance that "Coffee is the drink of devils”, but there is no better drink than this. It is a waste to keep the Islamic people monopolized. Therefore, after he baptized coffee and then it was opened to Christians.
♪ It seems that coffee was very delicious, so it attracted people. Consequently, it could be drunk after overcoming religious precepts. This deliciousness is probably the reason why it is consumed all over the world now.
§ Coffee House
♪ The opening of the “coffee house” plays an important role in spreading coffee to common people. So, the history of coffee house will be described next.
☆ In 1554, the coffee house "Cavehane" was opened in Istanbul, Turkey. In 1645, a coffee house opened in Venice, Italy. In England, the first British coffee house opened in Oxford in 1650, and in 1652 a coffee house opened in London.
☆ In France, a coffee house (cafe) opened in Paris in 1672, and, in 1686, a coffee house opened in Comedy Francaise in Paris. A coffee house was opened in 1683 in Vienna, Austria. In 1698, it was opened in New York, USA.
♪ The “Coffee House” was created along with the spread of coffee around world, and became popular in the common people.
§ History of “Coffee” in Japan
♪ It seems that literary writers are greatly contributed in the spread of coffee in Japan. At the beginning of the civilization and culture, the aid of special people (intellectuals and People of the wealthy class) were needed to entertain and inform the luxury items that come in from overseas.
☆ In 1641, Dutch trading house was founded in Dejima, Nagasaki. At that time, Dutch people brought coffee. However, the only people who could contact the Dutch people were officials, interpreters, and prostitutes. But the common Japanese people did not have the opportunity to drink coffee. One of such officials, Shuzan Ota of Nagasaki Magistrate's Office, wrote down his impression of drinking coffee as "burning smell, unbearable to taste". As a result, the spread of coffee had to wait until after the mid-Meiji period.
☆ Even so, it would have been a little known because an advertisement of coffee was published on a newspaper in 1891. Twenty years later, in 1888 (1888), after returning from studying in the United States, Tei Ei-Kei opened a coffee shop called "Kahi Chakan (Cofee House)" in Ueno, but it was not accepted yet and closed in a few years.
☆ In 1911, "Cafe Plantin" by Shozo Matsuyama, "Cafe Paulista" by Ryu Mizuno, and "Cafe Lion" by Seiyoken opened in Ginza. Especially, at "Cafe Paulista", customers could drink Brazilian coffee at 1/3 the price of other stores. So, not only literary writers and literary youths but also common people could drink it. With this opportunity, coffee became popular all at once.
☆ In literary writers, Ogai Mori plays main role to have a meeting with other literary writers in a French restaurant and they drank French coffees. This is said to have pioneered the spread of coffee.
☆ And the heyday of the cafe will be reached in the 1930s. However, during World War II, coffee was banned from importing, so coffee disappeared from Japan.
☆ In 1950, the import of coffee was resumed, and in 1960, the import of coffee was liberalized. And it will lead to the current rise of coffee.
☆ Instant coffee was brought in by the US military stationed in Japan after the end of World War II and it first appeared on the market in 1956. And then, canned coffee was bought first in 1969.
♪ In addition to literary writers, those who returned from studying abroad or traveling abroad, diplomats, etc. played major role in the recognition and spread of coffee.
♪ Next will be described Food Culture of “Coffee” as Food Culture Anecdotes Part 2 - 5(3) - (2). Anecdotes on production regions and coffee species, etc.